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  • 3:57 PM, Monday, 17 Jan 2022

Course Postgraduate
Semester Sem. II
Subject Code PH626
Subject Title Device Physics and Nanoelectronics


1.Introduction: Moore’s law and technology development. International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (ITRS); Technology and material challenges limiting Moore’s law.

2.Contacts: Fabrication of Junction, Metal-semiconductor contacts, Schottky barrier. Contact resistance: 2-probe and 4-probe measurements; Kelvin and van der Pau structures; pn junctions: carrier transport. Equilibrium conditions, Steady state conditions, Transients and AC conditions.

3.MOS devices: Oxide charges and band-bending, Capacitance – Voltage (C-V) behavior of pMOS and nMOS devices, dissipation factor, band-diagram and degeneracy at accumulation and inversion, depletion width, Mott-Schottky plot and carrier concentration. Frequency dispersion of capacitance, correction of high-frequency capacitance, interface states, parallel conductance measurements, Equivalent oxide thickness (EOT); Leakage current mechanisms through MOS devices – space charges and Child’s law, Schottky emission, direct tunneling, band diagram under external field: Fowler-Nordheim tunneling, Poole- Frenkel charge injection.

4.MOSFET devices: Process technology of fabricating a MOSFET, degenerate states of inversion and formation of the channel, Operation of a MOSFET: Output characteristics: conduction through the channel at low fields; linear regime and Ohm’s law: surface mobility and bulk mobility of charges in a semiconductor. Factors influencing the mobility and mobility saturation; pinch-off and drain-current saturation; Threshold voltage of a MOSFET, Sub-threshold conduction in a MOSFET, transfer characteristics, transconductance and subthreshold swing, cutoff frequency. The Non-ideal MOSFET behavior: effects of Shottky contacts, influence of the oxide charges.

5.MOSFET scaling: scaling roadmap, Short-channel effects: Short-channel effect in transfer and output characteristics.

6.Introduction to Nanoelectronics: Single molecule field effect transistors, Nanowire FET’s, Single electron transistors, Single electron tunneling (SET) devices: Coulomb blockade phenomenon. Nano-scale flash memory devices – Yano memory devices, Resonant tunneling devices (RTD).

7.Optoelectronics devices: Photodiodes, Light emitting diodes, semiconductor lasers

Text Books

Same as Reference


1. Physics of Semiconductor Devices, S.M. Sze, Wiley Publications

2. Electronic Transport in Mesoscopic Systems, Supriyo Dutta, Cambridge University Press.

3. Semiconductor material and Device Characterization, D. K. Schroder, Wiley Interscience.

4. Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor (MOS) Physics and Technology, Nicollian and Brews, Wiley Interscience.